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Turabian / Chicago Style - History

The bibliography goes at the end of your paper, on a separate sheet, and is an alphabetized list of all the sources used in writing the paper. Since the word bibliography technically means all of the works written on a particular subject, titling this page Selected Bibliography may be more accurate.

While the information in bibliographies and footnotes are basically the same, the structure differs in bibliographies in the following ways:

  • Bibliography entries are alphabetized by author’s last name (Jones, Mark).
  • Bibliography entries use periods to separate pieces of information.
  • Bibliography entries list complete source information, rather than specific page numbers.
  • Bibliography entries begin at the left margin and all other lines are indented 5 spaces.

In the footnote or bibliography, if an author’s name is missing, just move on to the next element as it should appear. Alphabetize your list according to the first letter of the entry, regardless if it is a last name or a title.

Book with 1 author

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

Book with 2 authors

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge  University Press, 2007.

Book with 3 authors

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

Book with more than 3 authors

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Owen, Frank Johnson, Tristan Jones, Louis Bissett, and Jonathan Howell. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

Book without an author

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Work in an anthology or collection of works by different authors

Dunlavy, Colleen. “Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?” In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton- Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Newspaper article (print)

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Journal article (print)

Sánchez, Raúl. “Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity.” College English 74 (2012): 234- 246.


Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.


Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

Electronic book (e-book)

Note: you may use either the URL or database name.

Adams, Ian, and R.W. Dyson. Fifty Major Political Thinkers. London: Routledge, 2003. Accessed December 3, 2015.

Paine, Thomas. Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution, Part 1. London: G.P. Putnam, 1894. Accessed November 16, 2015. ProQuest Ebrary.

Gladwell, Malcolm. Outliers: The Story of Success. Boston: Little, Brown, 2008. Kindle.

Journal article (online)

Note: you may use either URL, database name, or DOI number (if available).

Nash, David. "The Gain from Paine." History Today 59 (June 2009): 12-18. Accessed December 2, 2015. ProQuest Central.

Cooper, Mary H. "Social Security Reform." CQ Researcher Online 14 (September 24, 2004): 790. Accessed November 19, 2015.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. “Setting the Lutheran Eucharist.” Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Magazine article (online)

Note: you may use either URL, database name, or DOI number (if available).

Ehrenreich, Barbara. “Real Patriots Speak Their Minds." Time (July 8, 1991): 66. Accessed December 2, 2015. ProQuest Research Library.

Conason, Joe. "Liberalism Is as Patriotic as Apple Pie." Salon (July 7, 1998). Accessed November 19, 2015.

Newspaper article (online)

Chen, David W. "Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit." New York Times (March 30, 2001). Accessed November 6, 2015.


Kreis, Steven. "Thomas Paine, 1737-1809." The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Last modified May 30, 2015. Accessed November 4, 2015.

Tweet or other social networking post

Thomas Paine Society. Twitter Post. June 16, 2015, 8:05 PM.

YouTube or video on a website

GEICO Insurance. “GEICO Hump Day Camel Commercial – Happier than a Camel on Wednesday.” Filmed [May 2013]. YouTube video, 00:30. Posted [May 2013].