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Turabian / Chicago Style - History

Book with 1 author

1 Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8-11.

2 Paul S. Boyer, Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age, 2nd ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002), 24.

Book with 2 authors

3 Gerald Marwell and Pamela Oliver, The Critical Mass in Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 104.

Book with 3 authors

4 Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck, Mastering the Art of French Cooking (New York: Knopf, 1961), 23.

Book with more than 3 authors

5 Anne Ellen Geller et al., The Everyday Writing Center (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007), 52.

Book without an author

6 CIA World Factbook (Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009), 64.

Work in an anthology or collection of works by different authors

7 Colleen Dunlavy, "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" in Major Problems in American Business History, ed. Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton (New York: Houghton- Mifflin, 2006), 260.

Newspaper article (print)

8 Tyler Marshall, "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated," Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Journal article (print)

9 Raúl Sánchez, "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 243.


10 Richard Davidson, interview by author, Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.


11 Che, DVD, directed by Steven Soderbergh (New York: Criterion Collection, 2008).

Electronic book (e-book)

12 Ian Adams and R.W. Dyson, Fifty Major Political Thinkers (London: Routledge, 2003), 95, accessed November 3, 2015, Ebook Central.

13 Thomas Paine, Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution, Part 1, ed. Moncure Daniel Conway (London: G.P. Putnam, 1894), 16-17, accessed November 16, 2015,

Journal article (online)

14 David Nash, "The Gain from Paine," History Today 59, no. 6 (June 2009): 12-18, accessed December 2, 2015, ProQuest Central.

15 Mary H. Cooper, "Social Security Reform," CQ Researcher Online 14, no. 33 (September 24, 2004): 790, accessed November 19, 2015,

Magazine article (online)

16 Barbara Ehrenreich, "Real Patriots Speak Their Minds," Time, July 8, 1991, 66, accessed December 2, 2015, ProQuest Research Library.

17 Joe Conason, "Liberalism Is as Patriotic as Apple Pie," Salon, July 7, 1998, accessed November 19, 2015,

Newspaper article (online)

18 David W. Chen, "Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit." New York Times, March 30, 2001, accessed November 6, 2015,


19 Steven Kreis, "Thomas Paine, 1737-1809," The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History, last revised May 30, 2015, accessed November 4, 2015,

Tweet or other social networking post

20 Thomas Paine Society, Twitter post, January 26, 2014 (3:10 p.m.), accessed February 11, 2014,

21 Paine vs. Burke, Thom Hartmann Program (YouTube, December 10, 2015), accessed February 10, 2015,

Attention Sign Picture


For the second and all subsequent references to a source, use an abbreviated form. If the source and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author's last name and page reference:

22 Nash, 14. [shortened from full information in footnote #14 above]


If, however, you are using two or more sources by that author, you must indicate which of the sources you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference.


23 Paine, Rights of Man, 16. [shortened from full information in footnote #13 above]

If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened footnote.

24 Joseph Johnson, Oxford Dictionary of Last Names, 170.


When referring to the same source consecutively (without interruption), it is acceptable to use the Latin abbreviation “Ibid.”


25 Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8-11.

26 Ibid. [if the source and page number(s) remain the same]

27 Ibid., 10. [if source is the same, but page number(s) differs]