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COM-231 Public Speaking: Citing

A Guide to Research at Surry Community College

Oral Citations

CREDIBILITY

  • An oral citation conveys the reliability, validity and currency of your information. Citing your sources orally lets your audience know that you have researched your topic.

PLAGIARISM

  • Failure to provide an oral citation is considered a form of plagiarism, even if you cite your sources in a written outline, bibliography, works cited, or references page. When you are delivering a speech, you must provide an oral citation for any words, information or ideas that are not your own.

As a rule of thumb, these are the three basic elements, but this will vary with the type of source:

  • WHO: Identify the element of the source (author or title) which provides the greatest authority and/or secondary credibility. Does the author have credentials?
  • WHAT: What type of publication is it—newspaper, government report, magazine, journal? (In other words, would everybody know that the Kansas City Star is a newspaper? If not, tell them!)
  • WHEN: When was the book, magazine, newspaper or journal published (date)? When was the person interviewed? When was the website last updated and/or when did you access the website?

When you use images or researched information within a visual aid (like a PowerPoint), it is important that you cite it properly. A title slide and full Works Cited is important within your visual aid, but you still must cite your sources out loud when you use or refer to them.

For articles, give the author name (if relevant), the date, and the title of the publication.

 
  • “According to Len Zehm, a sports columnist for the Chicago Sun Times, in an article from May 31, 2020…”
  • “Newsweek magazine of December 4, 2019 lists bankruptcy as the…”
  • “In the latest Gallup Poll, cited in last week’s issue of Time magazine…”


The title of the article does not need to be stated, but may be included if relevant. You also do not need to include the page number or the name of the database/library where the article was found.

Cite an article in your written workAPA  |  MLA

For books, give the title, the year of publication, and a brief mention of the author's credentials.

 
  • "In his 2018 book, Eating to Be Smart, Charles Larson, a registered dietitian, notes that consuming yogurt…”

There is no need to mention the page or publisher.

Cite a book in your written workAPA  |  MLA

If you are citing a website you need to establish the credibility, currency and objectivity (fact vs. opinion) of the site.
Mention:

  • the title of the website
  • the “author”/organization/sponsor that supports the site
  • the site’s “credentials” You can confirm a site’s “credentials” by looking for links as: “About us” or “Our Mission” or “Who we are”
  • the last date it was updated, if known
  • the date you accessed the site.

Tip: If you cannot find this information on a web site, you may want to consider finding a different source.

  • “One of the most active developers of neurotechnology, Cyberkinetics.com, claims on their website, last updated on March 24, 2020, that…”
  • “From the website maintained by the Wisconsin Council of Dairy Farmers entitled “Dairy Products and Your Diet”, as of January 10, 2020, yogurt…” (or “of an unknown date which I accessed on September 18th of this year”), yogurt proves to be…”

 

In an oral citation of a website, you do not need to give the URL.

Cite a website in your written workAPA  |  MLA

When citing an interview, give the person's name and credentials, date of interview, as well as the fact that the information was obtained from a personal interview:

 
  • “In a personal interview on January 15 that I conducted with Nancy Manes, head of cardiac care at Central DuPage Hospital, the most important…”

Cite an interview in your written workAPA  |  MLA