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MLA 9th Edition


Basic Form:

Author(s). “Article Title or Webpage Title.” Website Title in Italics, Publication Date, URL.

Site with Editors and No Publisher

Eaves, Morris, et al., editors. The William Blake Archive. 1996-2014,

Site Written and Published by an Organization

Folgerpedia. Folger Shakespeare Library, 17 July 2018, 

Site with No Publication Date

Beaton, Kate. "The Secret Garden." Hark! A Vagrant, Accessed 17 Jan. 2017. 

Blog Post

Hayes, Terrence. "The Wicked Candor of Wanda Coleman." The Paris Review, 12 June 2020, The Daily.

Books & E-books

Basic Form: 

Author(s). Title of Book in Italics. Edition, Publisher, Year. Database Name in Italics (if electronic), Permalink or URL (if there is one).

Book by One Author

Mantel, Hilary. Wolf Hall. Picador, 2010. 

Book by Two Authors

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

Book by More Than Two Authors

Charon, Rita, et al. The Principles and Practice of Narrative Medicine. Oxford UP, 2017.

Book by an Unknown Author

Beowulf. Translated by Alan Sullivan and Timothy Murphy, edited by Sarah Anderson, Pearson, 2004.

Lazarillo de Tormes. Medina del Campo, 1554.

An Edited Book with Author

Milton, John. The Riverside Milton. Edited by Roy Flannagan, Houghton Mifflin, 1998.

An Edited Book without Author

Sánchez Prado, Ignacio M., editor. Mexican Literature in Theory. Bloomsbury, 2018.

Translated Book

Homer. The Odyssey: Translated into English Blank Verse. Translated by William Cowper, First Avenue Editions, 2014.


Conrad, Christian, and Marjorie Ellis Thompson. The New Brand Spirit: How Communicating Sustainability Builds Brands, Reputations and Profits. Gower, 2016. Ebook Central, 

O'Connor, Patricia. Woe is I: The Grammarphobe's Guide to Better English in Plain English. E-book ed., Riverhead Books, 2009.

E-book on a Website

Poe, Edgar Allan. The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902. HathiTrust Digital Library,


Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Narrated by Sissy Spacek, audiobook ed., unabridged ed., HarperAudio, 2014.

Thomas, Angie. The Hate U Give. Narrated by Bahni Turpin, audiobook ed., Audible, 2017.

*Note: For your in-text citation, instead of a page number, include a timestamp (Example: Thomas 02:14:12-02:15:12).

Part of a Book or Ebook (chapter, essay, play, poem, short story)

Basic Form: 

Author(s). "Title of Part." Title of Book in Italics, edited by Editor, edition, vol. #, Publisher, Year, page number(s). Database Name in Italics (if electronic).


Euripides. The Trojan Women. Ten Plays, translated by Paul Roche, New American Library, 1998, pp. 457-512. 

Note: Play titles are always italicized. 


Marvell, Andrew. "The Mower's Song." The Norton Anthology of English Literature, M. H. Abrams, general edition, 4th ed., vol. 1, W. W. Norton, 1979, p. 1368.

Short Story

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Masque of the Red Death." The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58.


Dewar, James A., and Peng Hwa Ang. "The Cultural Consequences of Printing and the Internet." Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies after Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, edited by Sabrina Alcorn Baron et al., U of Massachusetts P / Library of Congress, Center for the Book, 2007, pp. 365-77.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Basic Form: 

Author. "Article Title." Journal Title, Volume #, Issue #, Date, Page Number(s). Database, Permalink or DOI (if online).

Journal Article in Print

Boggs, Colleen Glenney. "Public Reading and the Civil War Draft Lottery." American Periodicals, vol. 26, no. 2, 2016, pp. 149-66.

Online Journal Article

Aplert-Abrams, Hannah. "Machine Reading the Primeros Libros." Digital Humanities Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 4, 2016,

Online Journal Article in a Database (with Permalink)

Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, spring 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, 

Online Journal Article in a Database (with DOI)

Bockelman, Brian. "Buenos Aires Bohème: Argentina and the Transatlantic Bohemian Renaissance, 1890-1910." Modernism/Modernity, vol. 23, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 37-63. Project Muse, 

Online Journal Article (PDF)

Fisher, Margaret. "The Music of Ezra Pound." Yale University Library Gazette, vol. 80, nos. 3-4, Apr. 2006, pp.139-60. JSTOR, PDF download.

ChatGPT or Artificial Intelligence Model

Basic Form: "Title of Source." Title of AI Tool, Version, Publisher, Date Content was Generated, General URL.


"Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald" prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 7 Jun. 2023,

News Articles

Basic Form: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper in Italics, Date of Publication, page number(s). Database in Italics (if electronic). Page Number(s) or URL (if from a website).

News Article (Print)

Magra, Iliana, and Andrea Zaratemay. "Hikers' Love of a Rarity in the Andes Takes a Toll." The New York Times, 3 May 2018, p. A7. 

News Article (Online)

Parker-Pope, Tara. "How to Age Well." The New York Times, 2 Nov. 2017,

News Article (Review)

Tommasini, Anthony. "A Feminist Look at Sophocles." The New York Times, late ed., 11 June 1998, p. E5.

Magazine Articles

Basic Form:

 Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Magazine in Italics, Date of Publication, page number(s). Database in Italics (if electronic). page number(s) or URL (if from a website).

Magazine Article (Print)

Deresiewicz, William. "The Death of the Artist - and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur." The Atlantic, Jan.-Feb. 2015, pp. 92-97

Magazine Article (Online)

Riis, Jacob. "Huddled Masses." 1890. Lapham's Quarterly, vol. 10, no. 1, winter 2017,

Magazine Article (Review) 

Rohrbaugh, Lisa. Review of Zero Zone, by Scott O'Connor. Library Journal, 1 July 2020,


An Image Reproduced in a Book

Velázquez, Diego. An Old Woman Cooking Eggs. Circa 1618, Scottish National Gallery. The Vanishing Velázquez: A Nineteenth-Century Bookseller’s Obsession with a Lost Masterpiece, by Laura Cumming, Scribner, 2016, p. 27.

A Photograph Viewed in Person

Cameron, Julia Margaret. Alfred, Lord Tennyson. 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

A Painting Viewed Online

Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975. MOMA,

An Untitled Image from a Print Magazine

Karasik, Paul. Cartoon. The New Yorker, 14 Apr. 2008, p. 49.

Films, TV, and Videos

To create a basic works-cited-list entry for a movie, list the title of the movie. Then in the Contributor element, list the name of the director. Next, in the Publisher element, provide the name of the company that produced the movie, followed by the release date. You might include other elements, such as additional contributors if they are pertinent to your discussion, and website information if you accessed the movie online.

A Film Viewd on a Library Database

"Sonnets of William Shakespeare." Films Media Group, 2021. Films On Demand, Accessed 30 Aug. 2023.

A Film Viewed on Netflix

E.T. The Extra-Terrestial. Universal Studios, 1982. Netflix app.

A Film Viewed in Person

Opening Night. Directed by John Cassavetes, Faces Distribution, 1977. 

A Film Viewed on YouTube

Richardson, Tony, director. Sanctuary. Screenplay by James Poe, Twentieth Century Fox, 1961. YouTube, uploaded by LostCinemaChannel, 17 July 2014,

A TV Episode Viewed on Amazon Prime Video

"New Normal." Directed by Dan Attias. Homeland, season 5, episode 10, Showtime, 24 July 2016. Amazon Prime Video app. 

A TV Episode Viewed on DVD

“Hush.” 1999. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, episode 10, Mutant Enemy / Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3. DVD.

A TV Episode Viewed on YouTube

M*A*S*H Season 10 Episode 3 Rumor at the TopYouTube, uploaded by DINH TAN 3, 21 Jan. 2019,


Basic Form: Host or narrator. "Episode Title." Name of the Podcast in Italics, season #, episode #, Publisher (if from a larger website), Name of App in italics (if streamed), Publication Date, URL (if there is one).

Podcast Streamed on an App

Gladwell, Malcolm, narrator. “The Lady Vanishes.” Revisionist HistoryiTunes app, 16 June 2016.

Podcast Streamed on the Web

Gladwell, Malcolm, narrator. “The Lady Vanishes.” Revisionist History, season 1, episode 1, Slate Group, 2016,

Chang, Ailsa, host. “Why Scientists Can’t Explain All the Appeal of an Eclipse.” Morning Edition, NPR, 11 Aug. 2017. NPR,

Social Media


World Wildlife Fund. "Five Things to Know on Shark Awareness Day." Facebook, 14 July 2020,


Thomas, Angie. Photo of The Hate U Give cover. Instagram, 4 Dec. 2018,


Lilly [@uvisaa]. "If u like dark academia there's a good chance you've seen my tumblr #darkacademia." TikTok, 2020,


Chaucer Doth Tweet [@LeVostreGC]. "A daye wythout anachronism ys lyke Emily Dickinson wythout her lightsaber." Twitter, 7 Apr. 2018,