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Turabian / Chicago Style - Music

In-Text Citations


In-text citations should be placed at the end of the sentence (before the period) when a resource has been used. Sometimes, a sentence may be long or complex enough so that the cited portion of the sentence isn't obvious. In that case, the in-text citation may be placed immediately after the use of information. Page numbers should be included.

General Form:  (Author Last Name Year of Publication, Page #)

Example:  (Smith 1992, 142

The following examples show in-text citations for works with multiple authors:

One author: (Smith 1992, 142)

Two authors: (Smith and Johnson 1998, 14)

Three authors: (Smith, Johnson, and White 2001, 42)

More than three authors: (Smith et al. 1998, 203)

Corporate Authors:  (National Alliance for Social Consideration 1932, 11)

Corporate or organizational author

For corporate or organizational authors, the name of the organization may be shortened to its most basic title. Avoid organizational abbreviations.

No Author

Turabian does not offer examples for creating in-text citations when there is no author. Standard practice is to include the title of the work in place of the author. The title should be formatted just like the References list entry:

(Plagiarism and You 2002, 142)                                 ("Five Ways to Protect Yourself" 2000, 33)

No publication date

When there is no publication date listed for a source, use "n.d." (no date) in place of the date.

(Statistics for Water Rights n.d.)