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APA Style: References List

attention: white exclamation point in black triangleAPA 7th edition states: "Do not include database name or database URL." For library databases, use a DOI URL (e.g. https://doi.org/10.123-12345) if available. Otherwise, no URL is necessary. URLs are still required for all non-database online sources.

Book, printed (author)

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Book title. Publisher.

Examples:

Armstrong, D. N. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Academic Press.

Blevins, L., & Guarino, D. (2020). The complete American dictionary of first names. UNC Press.

Johnson, R., Sloan, T., & Liston, O. (2017). The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. Oxford University Press.

Book, printed (editor)

Basic Form:

Editor Last Name, First Initial. (Published date). Book title. Publisher.

Examples:

Ferguson, P. (Ed.). (2018). The Oxford dictionary of the Spanish language. Oxford University Press.

Jones, R., Smith, P., & Livingstone, E. (Eds.). (2019). The new dictionary of the African continent. UNC Press.

Book chapter

Basic Form:

Chapter author's Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Chapter title. In Book editor's First Initial(s) editor's Last Name (Ed.), Book title (pages). Publisher.

Example:

O’Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (2018). Men’s and women’s gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B.R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107‐123). Duke University Press.

E-book from a library database

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Book title. Publisher. DOI URL (if available)

Examples:

Roussopoulous. D. I., & Smith, K. P. (2017). The new left: Legacy and continuity. Black Rose Books.

Schiraldi, G. R. (2018). The post­traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000

E-book from a website

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Book title. Publisher. URL

Example:

Johnson, T. (2016). The Oxford encyclopedia of penguins. Firefly Books. https://googlebooks.com/newbooksofpenguins

Webpage (with author)

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Webpage title. Title of overall website (if different from author name). URL

Examples:

Dixon, A. (2017). B.F. Skinner: Biography of the behaviorist thinker. Verywell. https://www.verywellmind.com/b-f-skinner-biography-1904-1990-2795543

American Red Cross. (n.d.). Tsunami preparedness. https://www.redcross.org/get-help/how-to-prepare-for-emergencies/types-of-emergencies/tsunami.html

Webpage (no author)

Basic Form:

Webpage title. (Published date). Title of overall website (if different from author name). URL

Examples:

Operant conditioning. (n.d.). Psychology Today. https://psychologytoday.com/operant-conditioning

Brief biography of Jane Austen. (2014). The Jane Austen Society of the United Kingdom. https://www.janeaustensoci.freeuk.com/pages/biography.htm

Journal article from a library database

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Title of article. Title of Publication, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI URL (if available)

Examples:

Herbst‐Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2015). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(5), 225‐229.

Keanan, M. H. (2017). Therapeutic diet order writing: Current issues and considerations. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 22(1), 28‐36. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal article (not from a library database)

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Title of article. Title of publication, volume number(issue number), pages. URL (if applicable)

Examples:

Harlow, H. F. (2017). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55(10), 893-896.

Nevin, A., Rettig, T. A., & Huesman, R. (2010). The changing of teacher education special education. Teacher Education and Special Education, 13(4), 147-148. https://www.tese.org/12345

Newspaper article

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Article title. Newspaper Title, pages. URL (if applicable)

Examples:

Schwartz, J. (2016, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, C1.

Hess, B. (2018, November 8). New directions in the jazz music industry. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/jazz-music-industry/18-11-8

Magazine article

Basic Form:

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Article title. Magazine Title, pages. URL (if applicable).

Examples:

Rothbart, D. (2018, October). How I caught up with dad. Men's Health, 108-113.

Findlay, A. (2019, March/April). Volcano alley. Canadian Geographic, 44-48. https://www.canadiangeographic.com/mar-19/volcano-alley

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry

Basic Form:

Entry author's Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Entry title. In Book author/editor's First Initial(s) author's Last Name, Book title (pages). Publisher.

Examples:

Anderson, T. A. (2018). Ernest Hemingway (1899 - 1961). In B. H. Gelfant (Ed.), The Columbia companion to the twentieth-century American short story (pp. 107‐123). Duke University Press.

Dred Scott Decision. (2014). In P. Cornelison, & T. Yanak, The great American history fact-finder. Houghton Mifflin.

Wikipedia entry

Basic Form:

Entry title. (Date retrieved). In Wikipedia. URL of specific version of the page

Example:

List of Academy Award-winning films. (2020, January 2). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Academy_Award-winning_films&oldid=923579407

Film or video (not online)

Basic Form:

Director(s), Producer(s), or Host(s). (Director, Producer, or Host). (Year). Film title [Film]. Production Company. URL (if applicable)

Examples:

Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Film]. Miramax.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

TV series (not online)

Basic Form:

Writer(s), Producer(s), or Director(s) Last Name, First Initial(s). (Writer, Producer, or Director). (Airing dates). Series title [TV series]. Production Company.

Example:

Davis, I. M. (Director). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Home Box Office.

TV episode (not online)

Basic Form:

Writer(s), Producer(s), or Director(s) Last Name, First Initial(s). (Writer, Producer, or Director). (Airing date). Episode title (Season number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Writer(s), Producer(s), or Director(s) First Initial(s). Last Name (Writer, Producer, or Director), Series title. Production Company.

Example:

Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.

.

Online video (Netflix, Hulu, etc.)

Basic Form:

Writer(s), Producer(s), or Director(s) Last Name, First Initial(s). (Writer, Producer, or Director). (Airing date). Episode title (Season number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Writer(s), Producer(s), or Director(s) First Initial(s). Last Name (Writer, Producer, or Director), Series title. Production Company.

Episode Example:

Kang, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive Producer), How I met your mother [Video]. Hulu. https://hulu.com/how-i-met-your-mother

Movie Example:

Kohler, W., Davidson, K., Knopfler, W, & DiCaprio, L. (Producers), & Ladkani, R., Davidson, K. (Directors). (2016). The ivory game [Video]. Netflix. https://netflix.com/the-ivory-game.

YouTube or video on a website

Basic Form:

Uploader/Username. (Upload date). Video title [Video]. Streaming video service. URL

Examples:

Norton, R. (2016, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZ

BrightPhoton. (2018, July 26). Electric-car [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/281795524

Image on a website

Basic Form:

Artist or creator Last Name, First Initial(s) [Artwork type]. Museum/Publisher, Location (if applicable). URL

Examples:

Emery, A. (2016). Flamingo [Photograph]. https://unsplash.com/photo=flamingo

Harris, T. D. (1930). The sleeping gypsy [Painting]. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, United States. https://www.pma.org/sleepinggypsy

Roseman, P., & Hill, Q. (2019). How the library impacts student success [Infographic]. American Library Association. https://ala.org/info/library-success

Email or interview

Emails, phone calls, and in-person interviews are cited in-text only and are not listed on the References page.

(John Smith, personal communication, January 20, 2020)

or, in your sentence:

John Smith (personal communication, January 20, 2020) of the Surry County Health Department stated that the rate of infant mortality has fallen throughout the United States during the past decade.

Tweet

Basic Form:

Profile Name or Author Last Name, First Intial(s) [@username]. (Date posted). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Example:

Trump, D. [@realDonaldTrump]. (2017, January 3). I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312

Facebook post

Basic Form:

Profile Name or Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Date posted). Content of post up to the first 20 words [Status update]. Facebook. URL

Examples:

National Public Radio. (2019, November 22). Screen time may contribute to depression, new study claims [Status update]. Facebook. https://facebook.com/npr-screen

Gladwell, M. (2019, December 6). Scandi fans have already seen this, but for everyone else: Malcolm Gladwell on the Scandinavian talk show Skavlan Talkshow [Status update] Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/pg/MalcolmGladwellBooks/

Instagram photo/video

Basic Form:

Profile Name [@username]. (Date posted). Title or description of photo or video up to 20 words [Photograph or Video]. Instagram. URL

Example:

National Geographic [@natgeo]. (2019, March 28). Photo of the Bering Sea [Photograph]. Instagram. https://instagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3a.

Podcast episode

Basic Form:

Podcast host Last Name, First Initial(s). (Published date). Episode title (number) [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast title. Publisher or Production Company. URL.

Examples:

Reed, B. (Host). (2017, March 27). Has anybody called you? (No. 3) [Audio podcast episode]. In S-Town. Serial Productions. https://stownpodcast.org/episode-3

Mobile app

Basic Form:

Author or Creator. (Date Created/Last Updated). App title (Version number) [Mobile app]. Publisher/Store. URL

Example:

Skyscape. (2019). Skyscape medical resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile app]. App Store. https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/skyscape

Entry in a mobile app

Basic Form:

Author or Creator. (Date Created/Last Updated). Entry title. In App title (Version number) [Mobile app]. Publisher/Store. URL

Example:

Skyscape. (2019). Diabetes in the elderly. In Skyscape medical resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile app]. Google Play Store. https://play.google.com/skyscape