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APA Style: Notable Changes

References List

Library database URLs should not be used because they can be unstable. Students should only use DOI URLs, which are often unavailable. Please specify in your assignment if you wish students to include database URLs.

x mark  Keanan, M. H. (2017). Therapeutic diet order writing: Current issues and considerations. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 22(1), 28‐36. Retrieved from https://login.proxy172.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/

white check mark in green circle  Keanan, M. H. (2017). Therapeutic diet order writing: Current issues and considerations. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 22(1), 28‐36.

white check mark in green circle  Mitchell, J. T. (2017). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(5), 225-229. https://doi.org/10.1123/897-99-2345 


DOIs are now formatted as URLs:

x mark  doi: 10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449

white check mark in green circle  https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449


URLs are generally no longer preceded by “Retrieved from.” The website name is generally included, and web page titles are italicized.

x mark  Walker, A. B. (2019). Anti-vaxxer arrested amid measles crisis. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-1234

white check mark in green circle  Walker, A. B. (2019). Anti-vaxxer arrested amid measles crisis. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-1234


Publisher location is no longer needed:

x mark  Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

white check mark in green circle  Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.


E-book formats/platform (e.g., Kindle) are no longer needed, but publisher is required.

x mark  Johnson, S. (2017). Historical dictionary of India [Kindle version]. https://doi.org/10.1123/978-11-123-2473-2

white check mark in green circle  Johnson, S. (2017). Historical dictionary of India. Palgrave MacMillan. https://doi.org/10.1123/978-11-123-2473-2

In-Text Citations

Sources with more than three authors should be shortened to first author and et al. 

x mark  (Walker, Jones, Cooper, Smith, 2019)

white check mark in green circle  (Walker et al., 2019)

Format & Punctuation

Student papers no longer require a running head or title header on any page. Students only need to insert a page number in the top right of each page.

x mark  Running head: THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON SELF-ESTEEM

x mark  THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON SELF-ESTEEM


Always use a single space after every punctuation in the body text. Previously, APA required two spaces at the end of a sentence.

x mark  Some researchers came to different conclusions.  Fish oil was determined to assist most of the study participants. 

white check mark in green circle  Some researchers came to different conclusions. Fish oil was determined to assist most of the study participants.


More flexibility in font types. Acceptable fonts are:

white check mark in green circle  12-point Times New Roman

white check mark in green circle  11-point Calibri

white check mark in green circle  11-point Arial

white check mark in green circle  11-point Georgia

white check mark in green circle  10-point Lucida Sans Unicode